Skirmish at Frankfort and Patterson’s Creek

The Skirmish at Frankfort and Patterson’s Creek (aka Kelley’s Island) was fought on Wednesday, June 26, 1861 between Union forces commanded by Col. Lewis “Lew” Wallace and Confederate forces commanded by Lt. Col. Turner Ashby in Mineral County, West Virginia.

Col. Lewis “Lew” Wallace.
Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division.

In mid-June, Col. Lewis “Lew” Wallace, commanding the 11th Indiana Infantry Regiment, arrived in Cumberland, Maryland across the Potomac River from Virginia with a mission to guard the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad. His 11th Indiana routed a Confederate force out of Romney, Virginia on June 11, then withdrew.

Confederate reinforcements under Col. Ambrose Powell Hill arrived in Romney on June 15, then proceeded to burn the railroad bridge at New Creek. On June 19, two companies of Confederate cavalry arrived in Romney commanded by Col. Angus W. McDonald, Sr. to relieve them. Hill’s infantry left on the 21st.

These troop movements alarmed Wallace and his men, who were outnumbered and far from reinforcements. His nearest support were Pennsylvania Reserve units who had orders not to leave their state. To gather intelligence about what he was up against, Wallace instructed his men to commandeer horses, but they only found thirteen in “fair” condition.

Meanwhile, McDonald’s cavalry was busying itself around Romney. Lt. Col. Turner Ashby led a company called the “Mountain Rangers” from Fauquier County. On the morning of Wednesday, June 26, 1861, Lt. Col. Ashby and his younger brother, Cpt. Richard Ashby, set off on two different missions. The elder Ashby took nine men on a scouting mission toward Patterson’s Creek Depot, while the younger Ashby set off with 19 men to arrest a local Unionist. Not finding him at home, Richard Ashby split his force and took the smaller squad toward Patterson’s Depot.

Lew Wallace’s scouts, led by Cpl. David B. Hay, were also on the move that day. His troop of thirteen mounted infantrymen headed from Cumberland east to Frankfort’s Ford along the Potomac River to ascertain if any enemy cavalry were there. They ran into Richard Ashby and his squad near the mouth of Dan’s Run, approximately three miles southeast of Patterson’s Creek. A sharp fight erupted. Most of the younger Ashby’s men managed to get away, but Richard was mortally wounded and left for dead. Cpl. Hay was also wounded.

The Hoosiers rode back toward Cumberland and stopped to rest on a small island (called Kelley’s Island or Kelly’s Island) in the Potomac River at the mouth of Patterson’s Creek. Lt. Col. Turner Ashby, joined by two scouts who heard the firing earlier, located the federals and charged headlong through the shallow water. It was a fatal mistake. Ashby’s horse was shot out from under him, two of his men were killed, and several wounded (Lew Wallace greatly exaggerated the number of Confederate cavalry and their casualties).

Wallace sent two companies to help, and the Confederates withdrew. Later, Turner Ashby found his younger brother’s body and became a changed man–sullen with a burning desire for revenge. He would also die in battle, on June 6, 1862.

This was the last skirmish for the 11th Indiana in Virginia. In July, the regiment joined Maj. Gen. Robert Patterson’s army north of Winchester, Virginia, returned to Romney July 11-13th, then proceeded home to Indianapolis to be mustered out and re-organized as a three-year regiment in early August.

Opposing Forces


7th Virginia Cavalry, Co. A
Fauquier Mountain Rangers
Lt. Col. Turner Ashby
Cpt. Richard Ashby


Col. Lewis Wallace, Commanding

11th Indiana Inf. RegimentCpl. David B. Hay13121


Cpt. Richard Ashby7th Virginia Cavalry, Co. AX
Pvt. O’Fanton / O’Forton7th Virginia Cavalry, Co. AX
Pvt. Oswald (Osbourn) Foley7th Virginia Cavalry, Co. AX
Pvt. John A. Ladd7th Virginia Cavalry, Co. AX
Source: Armstrong, Richard L. 7th Virginia Cavalry. The Virginia Regimental History Series. Lynchburg: H.E. Howard, Inc., 1992.
Cpl. David B. Hay11th Indiana Infantry, Co. AX
Pvt. John C. Hollenback11th Indiana Infantry, Co. BX
Pvt. Edward P. Thomas11th Indiana Infantry, Co. KX
Source: Report of the Adjutant General of the State of Indiana, Vol. II Indianapolis: W.R. Holloway, State Printer, 1865; Report of the Adjutant General of the State of Indiana, Vol. IV Indianapolis: Samuel M. Douglass, State Printer, 1866.

Primary Sources

Durham, Thomas Wise. Three Years with Wallace’s Zouaves: The Civil War Memoirs of Thomas Wise Durham. Jeffrey L. Patrick, Ed. Macon: Mercer University Press, 2003.


Armstrong, Richard L. 7th Virginia Cavalry. The Virginia Regimental History Series. Lynchburg: H.E. Howard, Inc., 1992.

Stephens, Gail. Shadow of Shiloh: Major General Lew Wallace in the Civil War. Indianapolis: Indiana Historical Society Press, 2010.

Updated: 23 April 2023
Created: 23 March 2021

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